the end of the eighteenth century during the partition of Poland. The
Polish Republic had acclaimed their new progressive Constitution on 3rd
May., 1793. It gave their country a strong government and numerous
reforms. Meanwhile, Catherine the Second of Russia created a similar
Committee from a few of her satellites in Poland who, at her behest,
protested against this new Constitution and appealed to Russia for support.
Duly given, this support resulted in an immediate invasion of Poland by
the Russian Army under the slogan of the £ defence of Polish freedom'
and her c liberation' from the legal government and newly-established
Constitution. The Committee, known as the c Targovica Confederation/
served as a cloak for Russian rule of prevalence and the deportation to
Siberia, until finally they openly annexed the country.
The method of the Chelm Committee was identical. It demanded
the abolition of the 1935 Constitution which had invested a strong power
in the Republic, and it issued a manifesto along the same lines,, seeking
the protection of Russia.
c Targovica' had become synonymous with State treason, and the
Polish people were to associate this name with the Chelm c Committee
This c Committee 5 echoed the Soviet slogans ofc fighting the Fascists
in Poland/ just as the Targovica Confederation had been prepared to
fight the "Jacobins,3 proclaimed by the Russia of those days as the chief
enemy of humanity in general. In the Russo-Prussian Pact in 1793,
which divided the Polish Republic, Markov, its Russian originator, had
inserted phrases to the effect that the Powers partitioning Poland " estab-
lished firmly that the same spirit of revolution and dangerous tendencies,
which are now dominating in France, are ready to explode in the Polish
Kingdom and in the immediate neighbourhood of their territories ..."
Therefore ..." they felt in duty bound to strengthen the means of
caution, in order to secure their own subjects from the effects of such
bad and contagious example . . . **
In its manifesto the 4 Chelm Committee * emphasised that:—
..." The gates of the Republic will be barred to Hitlerite agents and those
who betrayed their country in September, 1939. We ex-communicate the
loutish agents of the reactionary movement who, by splitting internal unity
and by their attempts to embroil Poles against each other, have been playing
into the hands of Hitlerism."
But surely " those who betrayed their country in September, 19393"
could only have been the Communists who, executing the orders issued
by Moscow (then associated with Germany), turned against Poland and
" have been playing into the hands of Hitlerism."
The * Committee 5 called upon the people of Poland to assist the Red
"Attack the Germans," it said in its manifesto, " cripple their transport,
supply information to Polish and Russian soldiers, join the Polish Army,
which will avenge the defeat of September, 1939.